Home #2 Physics One day with the Einstein-Eddington Cosmological constant, Λ ... by Dr. Giovanni A. Orlando
One day with the Einstein-Eddington Cosmological constant, Λ ... by Dr. Giovanni A. Orlando PDF Print E-mail
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Sunday, 27 August 2017 00:00


Greetings in the day of the Salt ...

     And we cannot but confirm ... Einstein Theory have missing Salt ... we need ... necessarily to add ... to have a Benevolent and Good Soap.

     From some weeks ... I, Giovanni feel the sense to ... improve the Book ... @WhyEinsteinTheoryisWrong.

     Now ... Einstein, Professor, Genius Einstein leave us with a "Unfinished Revolution" and the Material herein exposed in described in the Divulgative Book ...



   ... And Yes ... I purchase Paul Davis Book, "God and the New Physics" in Birmingham in 1994 ... the same city where Oliver Lodge ... the Boss of Eddington lived and argue about Einstein and finance ... Eddington research to prove or disprove ... Einstein Wrong or correct.

    Now ... I feel the need to be more close to what Professor Einstein said ... and what he said was Studied by Professor Eddington ... but we do not listen too much about him ... Philosophy

     The reasons because Marconi were included was two:  Some Todeschini comments about Marconi Proof related Aether and because one of his pupil Pier Luigi Ighina ... Main Actor #31 ... very valid and genius, said was Marconi Student.

    Now until few days ago ... Marconi was ... a formal Secodary Actor .... but after a movie about Tesla ... doubts arise. And today these doubts were confirmed.

    In fact, the Book, "EMC of Analog Integrated Circuits" by J.-M. Redouté and M. Steyaert explains at page 3 ...

In 1888. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz developed the first wireless receiver and transmitter in his laboratory and measured the generated electric field strength as well as its polarity: he hereby demonstrated through experimentation that electromagnetic waves exist, and that they travel a certain distance through air [Whi60]. In 1893, after successfully winning the "war of currents" by establishing the indisputable superiority of the alternating current power system over the anterior DC power system supported by Thomas Edison brilliant Nikola Tesla publicly demonstrated the principles of radio waves and filed his radio patent (US645576) in 1900. One year later, in 1901. young Guglielmo Marconi combined previous knowledge and basically without inventing anything new, successfully set up the first transatlantic radio communication between Saint John's (Newfoundland) and Poldhu (Great-Britain) by transmitting the Morse code of the letter 'S* (dot-dot-dot), hereby spanning a distance of approximately 3500 km. When presented with this fact. Nikola Tesla reacted dryly that Marconi was actually using seventeen of his patents. Suddenly, and quite against all odds, Marconi obtained the famous "four-sevens'* (British patent number 7777) patent on radio in 1904, after the US patent Office mysteriously reversed its decision of granting Tesla the patent of the radio which had been filed a few years earlier. Five years later. Marconi was even awarded the Nobel prize for physics (co-shared with Karl Ferdinand Braun) in 1909. This famous British "four-sevens" patent and its equivalents in other countries, as well as the acclaimed Nobel prize, triggered a set of unrelenting and very brutal patent legal disputes between Marconi and Tesla. often leading to arbitrary rulings which varied between the full nullification to the full acceptance of Marconi's radio patent. In 1943, a few months after Tesla's death, this legal onslaught was resolved in the United States when the US Supreme Court upheld Tesla's original radio patent (US645576), confirming the importance of prior research which had been conducted by Nikola Tesla, Oliver Lodge, John Stone Stone and others. However, this decision which finally recognized and credited the genius of Nikola Tesla was not fully guided by pure altruism: since the Marconi Company was suing the United States Government for the use of its patents during the first World War, the Court simply avoided this action by restoring the priority of Tesla's patent over Marconi.

Marconi was rejected in Italy so because his Royalty and his Mother moves to England where he began experimentation. He was classified as "Mad" by Fascist. Then, become a Pro-Fascist.

Because this is not a lesson of History, but of Physics we can say ...  that this "behavior" is very normal in Italy ... with Leonardo ... with Galileo, with Enrico Fermi (all Actors in the Book) ... With Colombo ... with Mussolini, the Italian Fuhrer ... with Julius Caesar in Rome ... or Killed or rejected ... Never accepted. Then, after death they use them ... like Objects ... and gain money with them, first rejected the golden chicken.

Would be "interesting" if Italian Study their own Story ... populated of rejections and betray before their own citizen.

May be they can got the descriptions ... Tesla did about Marconi ... "Donkey".


But let us talk about ... Physics ...

We begin with a statement from Eddington ...

The great thing about time is that it goes on.
  -- Arthur Eddington

All things from eternity are of like forms and come round in a circle.
  -- Marcus Aurelius Antoninus

Now here we have two great Truth about Time that Antique Scholars unlock and were lost ... In fact, Greek did too ... In fact, Time has a Titan (Father of Zeus) called Cronus ... and he has a Partner called Lar related to Space. Because Titan "Cronus" (I prefer Kronus) ... Time never repeat ... and so Space repeat.

   Marcus Aurelius smell a great fact ... "Time is Circular" and so ... Past is generated from the Future ... but we are not clear with this concepts.

   Einstein got close ... but was too busy and suffering ... at last he did a "Pasticcio" ... a somehow refurbished Theory with many incongruities we want to and we will fix completely.

The distinction between past, present and future is only an illusion, even if a stubborn one.
  -- Albert Einstein

    Eddington ... also say ... and here is because we choose to include him like a "Secondary Actor" ... and improve the content the following quote:

I am a detective in search of a criminal—the cosmological constant. I know he exists, but I do not know his appearance.
  -- Arthur Eddington (1931)

   Now ...The Physics of the 20th Century is populated with Constants ... the Speed of Light, The Gravitational Constant from Newton ... The Planck constant, first the Number of Avogadro another Rich Italian and Noble like Volta ... unfortunately ... I need to prove you my Nobility ... Sniff, Sniff ...

    So, we have

  Now ... What represent  Λ? ... Λ represent the "mystical" somehow ... "crazy" Einstein Cosmological Constant.

   In honest word ... Is a forcing ... from "unaware" forces ...


The biggest blunder of my life . . .
Albert Einstein


Einstein himself lost track of cosmology in the 1920s, and seems to have learned of the expansion of the universe only after visiting Hubble in California in 1931. By this stage of his career, Einstein had become distracted with quantum mechanics, and was increasingly involved in international politics. With the rise of Nazism, the situation in Germany was deteriorating. As a Jew, a pacifist, and an independent thinker of international renown, Einstein was especially vulnerable. He sought more and more opportunities to travel abroad, making regular visits to Oxford University and the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. It was on one of these visits that he met Hubble.

In the early days of relativity theory, Einstein had been keenly interested in cosmology. Following his formulation of the general theory of relativity in 1915, he soon produced a model for the large-scale structure of the universe, using his description of gravitation in terms of spacetime curvature. This was published in 1917. Nobody then suspected that the universe is expanding, so it was perfectly natural for Einstein to seek a model that was static and eternal. No matter that the stars would burn out after a few billion years; these were the early days of astrophysical theory, and physicists still had little idea of how the stars shine. The chief obstacle confronting Einstein in his early cosmological investigations concerned the very nature of gravity itself. As in Newton's theory, the general theory of relativity describes gravitation as a universal attraction, acting between all bodies in the cosmos. This leads to something of a paradox, because a collection of unsupported bodies all attracting each other cannot remain static: they will inevitably fall together into a single mass. In other words, the universe will collapse under its own weight.

To evade this grave difficulty, Einstein came up with an ingenious solution. He proposed that the force of gravitational attraction is opposed by a new type of repulsive force, fine-tuned in strength to exactly counterbalance the weight of the cosmos, thereby achieving a static equilibrium. Rather than simply put such a force into the theory by hand, Einstein examined his general theory of relativity for clues. The gravitational-field equations were not, of course, handed to Einstein on tablets of stone, nor were they somehow derived from Newton's theory. He arrived at these equations after years of nitpicking mathematics, taking into account many factors, including simplicity and elegance. The simplest versions of the field equations work admirably, correctly reducing to those of Newton when the gravitational fields are weak. They also lead to several successful predictions.

The principal shortcoming of Einstein's original field equations was that the gravitational force they describe is purely attractive, and is therefore inconsistent with a static universe. To circumvent this problem, Einstein made the fateful decision to add an extra term to his original field equations. He called it the "cosmological term." Although the cosmological term is simpler than the other terms in the equation, and is in certain respects a natural addendum, it represented in many eyes an ugly adulteration and had all the hallmarks of a fix. Worse still, the cosmological term enters the theory multiplied by an unknown number, called the "cosmological constant," usually denoted by the Greek letter Λ (pronounced "lambda"). The trouble about all this is that it is an unwritten rule in science to keep the number of independent quantities in the theory as small as possible. Newton's theory had just one undetermined constant, called "G," which is a measure of the strength of the force between two point masses. The numerical value of G is found by measuring the force of attraction between two heavy balls of known mass a measured distance apart. Einstein's theory also contains G, and now it had a second constant. Λ, also to be determined from measurement.

The cosmological term is optional in the sense that it can be removed simply by setting Λ equal to zero, thereby recovering the original field equations. But if Λis chosen to be a positive number, the force it describes is repulsive, as Einstein desired. Being a component in an all-embracing theory of gravitation, the Λ force can be considered as a type of antigravity. The nature of the A force is, however, distinctly different from "normal" gravity, and other familiar forces. Most forces decrease in strength with distance, but the A force actually gets stronger. This has the virtue that the cosmological repulsion is negligible on the scale of the solar system, where Einstein's original theory already gives impressive accuracy, but still makes its presence felt over extragalactic distances.

A value for Λ can be worked out from the requirement that the repulsion is strong enough to counteract the weight of a given large region of the universe. From the known average density of cosmic matter Einstein was able to calculate how heavy a given region of the universe is, and thereby deduce A. It was easy to check that the cosmological term would be completely negligible in its local effects. For example, in the case of the Earth's gravity, the A force would reduce your weight by only a few billion-billion-billionths of a gram—less than the weight of a single atom. The Earth's attraction to the sun would be diminished by the equivalent of a gentle puff of air. So, although the A term might be considered by some to be artificial, ad hoc and ugly, it cannot be ruled out by appealing to local physics. The only way to test for it is by cosmological observation.

In the event, Λ  turned out to fail in its intended purpose, for two reasons. First, it didn't do the job properly; second, it appeared to be unnecessary anyway. These shortcomings were exposed not by Einstein, who seemed to lose interest in cosmology just as it was becoming exciting, but by a number of European scientists. The most significant of these was a Belgian cleric and mathematician, Monsignor Georges Lemaitre. Born in 1894, Lemaitre worked all his life at the University of Louvain. Colleagues described him as a man of robust vigor with a stentorian laugh. He was decorated for valor in the First World War, and in the Second he exercised courageous leadership at the university during the German occupation, a service for which he was awarded Belgium's highest national honor. Although Lemaitre made important contributions to celestial mechanics and the use of modern electronic computers for numerical analysis, he is best remembered as the man who turned the study of cosmology from a minor branch of physics into a respectable discipline in its own right. His theoretical investigations matched Hubble's work on the observational front and gave birth to the subject of scientific cosmology in a recognizably modern form.

Lemaitre made full use of Einstein's gravitational-field equations in his investigations, but unlUce Einstein he did not restrict himself to static solutions. In 1927, Lemaitre discovered that Einstein's proposed tug-of-war between gravitational attraction and the cosmological repulsion couldn't work, because it was unstable. The slightest disturbance would cause the universe either to collapse, or to embark on an unending career of runaway expansion, as either normal gravity or cosmic repulsion gained the upper hand. Perhaps more significantly, it was becoming increasingly clear by that time that the universe was in any case not static, but expanding.

When Einstein finally woke up to these facts, the effect was dramatic. He publicly recanted, abandoning his static model of the universe in utter disgust.


Now ... let me give my opinion ... Is not important ...

Another Scholar of Einstein Dr. Erwin J. Saxl ... talk about g (the G=9.8 m/s ... variable) ... Now ... if you accept my argument for a moment ... also G Constant, is variable.

If c is variable and you accept also G is variable ... Λ can be also variable ... and the formula is not exact.

The point.

The point is to Control Gravitation ... not write Formulae ... and Saint Francis did (also other Saints ... evidently they have more control over their Emotions than me)  ...

Lord Jesus walked on the Galilee Sea ... He know Einstein Formula? ... With Λ or Without ?

Is not important ... How to realize Lord Jesus Miracles ... in a World in need ... That is the point ... and this require ... Years of Study like those who follow the Quest of the Holy Grail.

Happy Sunday,

Giovanni A. Orlando.


Einstein's equation says "this is the end" and physics says "there is no end."
  -- John Wheeler

Last Updated on Monday, 04 September 2017 13:59